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03/01/2019

David Wallace Wells Discusses His Just-Published "The Uninhabitable Earth, Life After Warming" (February 28th)

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For this, my 168th interview, David Wallace Wells discusses his just-published book, "The Uninhabitable Earth, Life After Warming."  Listeners may recall I interviewed Mr. Wallace Wells on August 2, 2017 shortly after his published his July 2017 New York Magazine article by the same title, "The Uninhabitable Earth."  (At: http://nymag.com/intelligencer/2017/07/climate-change-earth-too-hot-for-humans.html.)   (In the recent past, or since last October, I've also interviewed Jessica Wolff, Kris Ebi and Jeremy Hess all on climate change.)   Currently, the earth has warmed to approximately 1 degree Celsius (1.8 F).  Our atmosphere presently contains over 400 parts per million of CO2, more than anytime over upwards of the past 15 million years.  According to the United Nations we are on course to pass 1.5C by 2040.  We learned last October the difference between 1.5C and 2.0C, per the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is cataclysmic.  (We are after all the Goldilocks planet.)  As one commenter of Wallace's Wells work has noted, "the impacts of climate change will be much graver than most people realize and he is right." Another stated, Wallace Wells " doesn't sugarcoat the horror."  As I note in the introduction to this interview, younger listeners (say under 40) are particularly encouraged to listen since you will inherit the full consequences of climate change.     

During this 35-minute conversation Mr. Wallace Wells begins by describing what explains the planet's five great extinctions and what effect they had on species survival.  (Scientists believe we are presently experiencing our sixth great extinction.)  Based on his intensive study he offers the most likely
scenario relative to the current and near-term emissions of global warming greenhouse gas emissions.  He discusses current science on global warming feedback loops, e.g., the albedo effect, James Hansen's "scientific reticence" critique, the value of exploiting hope versus fear in addressing global warming, the promise of carbon capture technology or negative emissions technology and creating hydrocarbon fuels from carbon capture and a general assessment of current US politics, including the recent "Green New Deal," in re: remedying climate change/global warming.       

David Wallace-Wells is deputy editor at New York Magazine, where he also writes about science and SWVjwzZE_400x400his  recurring “Tomorrow” column on the future of science and technology, e.g., his 2015 cover story about the epidemic of honey-bee deaths (the first magazine story to put the blame on neonicitinoid pesticides, which is now accepted science).  He joined the magazine as literary editor in 2011, became features director in 2016, and has overseen the magazine’s family of podcasts in addition to his writing and editing.   Before joining New York magazine, David was deputy editor at The Paris Review, where he edited and published writers such as Ann Beattie, Werner Herzog, Jonathan Franzen, Janet Malcolm, among others, and interviewed William Gibson as part of the magazine’s “Writers at Work” series.  He previously served as "The New York Sun’s" book editor.  Mr. Wallace Wells was graduated from Brown University.

Listeners are again encouraged to read the IPCC's recent, "Global Warming of 1.5C," a 32-page summary of the report is at: https://report.ipcc.ch/sr15/pdf/sr15_spm_final.pdf

02/19/2019

ATAP's Dr. Robert Levin Discusses Reforming Drug Pricing Policy (February 18th)

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The administration and the Congress are currently discussing various proposals to reform drug pricing policy.  Drug prices, as listeners are likely well aware, have risen substantially over the past two decades.  For example, between 1997 and 2007 they tripled and currently year-over-year Medicare Part D drug spending is expected to grow through 2026 at twice the 2007 through 2013 growth rate.   The administration formally began its effort last May with the announcement of its drug pricing "blueprint."  The Congress is currently holding hearings, e.g., the Senate Finance and House Oversight committees, on drug pricing.  The administration currently is proposing two drug pricing reforms that would address both Medicare Part B and Medicare Part D drug pricing and the Congress has already introduced several bills to curb drug price growth.     

During this 28 minute conversation Dr. Levin discusses ATAP's mission and funding and ATAP's position on the administration's current proposal to reform Medicare Part B drug pricing via reference pricing or via the use of an international price index.  Dr. Levin discusses moreover the administration's current proposal to reform Medicare Part D drug pricing by eliminating or prohibiting drug manufacturers from paying a rebate to pharmaceutical benefit managers (PBMs) and Part D plan sponsors.  Our conversation concludes with Dr. Levin's comments concerning the long standing debate whether the Secretary of DHHS should be allowed to negotiate Part D drug prices with manufacturers.   

Dr. Robert Levin is the President of the Alliance for Transparent and Affordable Prescriptions (ATAP), President of the Florida Society of Rheumatology and is a practicing physician Levinin Tampa Bay.  He teaches medicine at the University of South Florida and has served as a principal investigator in dozens of clinical trials involving rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, lower back pain and fibromylagia.    Dr. Levin is board certified in Internal Medicine with a sub-specialty in rheumatoid arthritis and is a fellow with the American College of Rheumatology and the American College of Physicians.  He earned his medical degree at Hahnemann University in Pennsylvania, did his residency at the Medical College of Pennsylvania and earned his undergraduate degree in chemistry from Oberlin College in Ohio.   

For information on ATAP go to: https://atapadvocates.com/

Concerning the proposed Medicare drug rebate proposal go to: https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2019-02-06/pdf/2019-01026.pdf.

For an overview of drug pricing issues, see, for example, Hopkins Professor Gerald Anderson's recent Senate Finance Committee testimony, at: https://oversight.house.gov/legislation/hearings/examining-the-actions-of-drug-companies-in-raising-prescription-drug-prices

02/01/2019

Remote Area Medical's Free Health Care Clinics: A Discussion with RAM CEO Jeff Eastman (January 31st)

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Over 40 million Americans live in poverty or upwards of 14% of the population.  Those living in extreme poverty number 18 million and over 5 million live in absolute poverty.  The US also has the highest youth poverty rate among OECD countries.  This reality is made worse by the fact the US is the only highly developed country in the world that lacks universal health care coverage.   Despite passage of the ACA in 2010 that reduced the number of non-elderly uninsured from 44 million to 27 million by 2016, last week Gallup survey data indicated over the past four years seven million fewer Americans have health care insurance.  This finding is not unsurprising considering the administration's ACA regulatory actions over the past two years.  With a significant number of Americans impoverished and a recent decline in those covered, it is no surprise that Americans are forced to seek charity care.   

During this 21 minute interview, Mr. Eastman explains why RAM was founded by Stan Brock in 1985, he describes RAM's upcoming clinic or "expedition" (RAM's 1,000th) this weekend in Knoxville.  More specifically he provides an overview RAM's patient population, the types of medical care RAM provides and who provides RAM care.   He also discusses how clinic sites are selected in the US and overseas and how the organization is funded.   (Over the past 34 years, RAM has served over 785,000 patients, via the volunteer efforts of over 135,000 clinicians and other volunteers, providing an estimated $785 million in free health care.) 

Jeff Eastman is currently the CEO or Remote Area Medical (RAM).  Previously, he spent 28 years employed by Altria sales Eastmanand distribution.  He began volunteering with RAM in 2008 and in 2014 became a full-time employee.  In 2015 he was voted RAM's first ever CEO.  Jeff earned an Associate’s Degree from the State University of New York at Canton, a Bachelor’s Degree from the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, and a Master’s of Business Administration from Lincoln Memorial University.  Jeff lives in Athens, Tennessee with his wife, Debbie.

For more on RAM go to: https://www.ramusa.org/

01/18/2019

The Current Ebola Outbreak in the Congo: A Conversation with Joseph Lafave (January 17th)

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This past summer the the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) began experiencing its 10th Ebola outbreak.  (The virus, with a mean mortality rate of 50 percent, is endemic in that country.)  To date, the current outbreak has claimed approximately 400 lives.  The World Health Organization (WHO) expects the outbreak to persist for another six months, in part, because current political turmoil in the DRC is effecting the ability of health officials to contain the spread of the disease to neighboring Rwanda, the South Sudan and Uganda.  Listeners may recall the last Ebola outbreak in 2014-2016 in West Africa infected over 28,000 and killing over 11,000.  While vaccines are in development and currently in use in the Congo there is currently no approved or licensed vaccine.

During this 21 minute conversation Joseph Lafave discusses the status of the current outbreak, the role political instability resulting from a disputed December 30th DRC presidential election is playing in containing the outbreak, what support the US is currently providing, how the US's current response compares to its 2014-2016 efforts, what related actions the Congress has taken, progress in developing an Ebola vaccine and the difficulty in fighting a major public health problem in context of political unrest.

Joseph Lafave is a journalist with NewRep and covers infectious disease outbreaks along with military and finance issues.  LafavePrior to is journalism work that included work at the Shreveport News, Mr. Lafave worked as an Environmental Safety and Health Engineer for Lockheed Martin as a Emergency Medical Technician in Leon County, Florida, and as a Safety Administrator for University Health Shreveport.  Mr. Lafave holds a Masters of Science in Healthcare Management from the University of Southern New Hampshire and an undergraduate degree in criminology from Florida State University.      

For more information on Ebola go to, e.g., https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/index.html.   

Also, please see this January 22nd JAMA viewpoint/editorial, "Ebola and War in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Avoiding Failure and Thinking Ahead," at: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2717586?guestAccessKey=c668402c-2993-40a9-95aa-eefd1a0c47f1&utm_source=silverchair&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=article_alert-jama&utm_content=etoc&utm_term=012219

01/14/2019

After Conceding Health Care Market Consolidation, What's Left is Exploiting Pricing Power (January 14, 2019)

The Trump administration published a lengthy report in December outlining its solutions for creating higher quality health care at more affordable prices.   

This editorial, titled, "The Necessity of Exploiting Pricing Power in a Post-Consolidated Health Care World," by myself and my colleague, John Rother,  is essentially a rebuttal.  It appears today in "The Morning Consult" and is at: https://morningconsult.com/opinions/necessity-exploiting-pricing-power-post-consolidated-health-care-world/

The Trump administration's report, "Reforming America's Healthcare System Through Choice and Competition," is at: https://www.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/Reforming-Americas-Healthcare-System-Through-Choice-and-Competition.pdf.

 

12/19/2018

Essay: "Climate Change Is the Greatest Threat to Human Health in History" (December 19th)

Listeners may be aware this has been a long standing interest/concern of mine, e.g., over the past few months I've posted several related podcast interviews and another essay.  Today, Health Affairs published my essay titled, "Climate Change Is the Greatest Threat to Human Health in History."  Since this simply is a summary of existing report findings, it's largely or only noteworthy in that it is, sadly, the first discussion on this topic by the journal in its 37 year history.  The essay is at: https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20181218.278288/full/.

 

 

12/14/2018

Dr. Jeremy Hess Discusses Lancet's "Countdown: Tracking Progress on Health and Climate Change" (December 13th)

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In late November, Lancet published its 2018 "Countdown: Tracking Progress on Health and Climate Change."  The 36-page report (link below), authored by nearly 70 scientists, including Dr. Jeremy Hess, provides an assessment of health and economic effects of climate change and global warming as well as provides an assessment of the world's green house gas emissions and current global efforts to reduce our carbon footprint all via 41 data indicators reported under five domains.  Among other sobering conclusions, the report states, "Carbon intensity remains broadly unchanged," i.e., "climate change is moving faster than we are."  This leads to the report states, "unacceptable high level of risk for the current and future health of populations of the world," that have the report states further, "dire implications for every aspect of human life."

During this 32-minute conversation Dr. Hess discusses his contribution to the report, moreover his contribution to the "adaptation, planning and resilience for health" domain and he comments on numerous other aspects of the report including resulting vector borne diseases, moreover Dengue, the effect greenhouse gas emissions have on air quality and health, effects on agricultural production and the media's coverage of climate change. 

Dr. Hess is Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine and Associate Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health Hess2017smSciences at the University of Washington, Seattle.  He is as well a member of the Center for Health and the Global Environment (CHanGE) at UW and is a consultant for the Climate and Health Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  He is also the principal investigator of an NIH-funded grant supporting work in India on the epidemiology of extreme heat and strategies for developing, implementing and evaluating heat early warning systems and is currently section editor at the Western Journal of Emergency Medicine.  Among other awards Dr. Hess is a recipient of the Presidential GreenGov award.  Dr. Hess earned his MD and MPH in global environmental health at Emory University. 

The "Countdown" report is at: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(18)32594-7/fulltext#

12/10/2018

Rosemary Gibson Discusses Her Recent Work, "China Rx" (December 7th)

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During this 31 minute discussion Rosemary Gibson unpacks her latest work, co-authored with Janardan Prasad Singh, titled, China, Rx, "Exposing the Risks of America's Dependence on China For Medicine.  As the title suggests the authors discuss the problems with relying on China for the production of essential ingredients for thousands of medicines, or the implications of relying on China regarding the quality and availability of essential drugs.  

Rosemary Gibson is Senior Adviser at The Hastings Center.  She is also board chair of the Altarum Institute, a non-profit health Rosemary_gibson[1]system research organization, she is a board member of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, she serves on the MedStar Health System Institute for Quality and Patient Safety advisory board, is faculty for the Academy for Emerging Health Care Leaders and for the Dartmouth Summer Symposium on Quality Improvement.  While at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Rosemary was the chief architect for it's $250 million, decade-long national strategy to establish inpatient palliative care programs that now number over 1,600.  She is also author of Medicare Meltdown (2013), Battle Over Health Care (2012), Treatment Trap (2010) and Wall of Silence (2003).  Among other awards, Rosemary is the recipient of highest honors from the American Medical Writers Association for her contributions to the field of medical communication. 

Information on China Rx is at: https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/566043/china-rx-by-rosemary-gibson-and-janardan-prasad-singh/9781633883819/

11/18/2018

Dave Chase Discusses His New Work, "The Opioid Crisis Wake-Up Call: Health Care is Stealing the American Dream” (November 16th)

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Listeners may recall, I have previously discussed the opioid epidemic this past February 2 with Dr. Steve Passik concerning abuse deterrent formulations and on November 16, 2016 with Dr. Ann Lembke regarding her work, "Drug Deal MD."  Tragically, the opioid epidemic continues unabated.  In 2017 there were 72,000 drug overdose deaths, among these 29,000 were from synthetic opioids, predominately fentanyl.  While Mr Chase's work examines the cause of the opioid epidemic and what could be done to reduce fatalities, it is moreover a study that attempts to explain what accounts for massive dysfunction in health care delivery that causes, as I note in the podcast's introduction, Americans to spend $1 trillion annually on health care coverage and services that do not improve their health.

During this 30 minute conversation Mr. Chase explains what prompted his writing this work and what explains, in his view, the opioid crisis.  Moreover, he explains the problem with health care as one moreover one of pricing failure, how payers, moreover self-insured employers, can more competently purchase more affordable coverage for their employers and provides examples or organizations that have lowered their health care spending.  He also discusses direct primary care, ERISA, insurance risk pool size, medical loss ratios (MLRs) and his efforts at credentialing use of The Health Rosetta blueprint. 

Mr. Dave Chase is the co-founder of The Health Rosetta, described as an open source blueprint for the next generation's Dave chase headshothealth ecosystem.   Mr. Chase's first book, "The CEO's Guide to Restoring the American Dream: How to Delivery World Class Healthcare to Your Employers at Half the Cost," became a Kindle #1 best seller.  Mr. Chase and The Health Care Rosetta focus on replicating health economies that rebuild hope and community through improved outcomes, lower spending and higher performing models.   

Information on Mr. Chase's book is at: https://healthrosetta.org/friends/

For more on The Health Rosetta, go to: https://healthrosetta.org/

 

11/15/2018

Professor Kristie Ebi Discusses the IPCC Report's Findings Related to Global Warming on Human Systems (November 14th)

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The below November 7th podcast post provides a link to an essay that, in part, provides an overview of the United Nation's International Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) recent report titled, "Global Warming of 1.5°C."  As noted in the essay, what is particularly noteworthy about the IPCC's report is its conclusion that keeping or holding temperature increases to below 2°C, the goal of the Paris climate accord, would not avoid the more serious effects of global warming.  For example, at 1.5°C of warming a significant percent of vertebrates, insects and plants would lose half of their climatically-determined geographic range and 70 to 90 percent of coral reefs would be lost.   

During this 28 minute conversation Professor Kirstie Ebi begins by briefly explaining the IPCC's work, she then discusses several of the findings in chapter 3, that she co-authored and is titled, "Impacts of 1.5°C Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems.," Professor Ebi makes note of the international climate change research communities' upcoming meeting in Poland, next issue of the US's Climate Science Special Report, anticipated in December, and comments on the health care industry's responsibility and opportunity to contribute to solving the climate crisis. 

Professor Kristie L. Ebi, is the Director of the Center for Health and Global Environment (CHanGE) and the Rohm and Haas EbiEndowed Professor in Public Health Sciences at the University of Washington.  She is the author of multiple national and international climate change assessments, including the IPCC's recently published Report on Global Warming of 1.5C.  Professor Ebi co-chairs the International Committee on New Integrated Climate change assessment Scenarios (ICONICS) that created five scenarios of socioeconomic development over this century.  Professor Ebi's scientific training includes a MS in toxicology and a Ph.D. and a Masters of Public Health in epidemiology and two years of post-graduate research at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine  She has edited four books on aspects of climate change and over 200 publications.

The IPCC report is at: http://www.ipcc.ch/report/sr15/ 

Though not noted during this discussion, it's worth noting here the much discussed essay by Will Steffen and colleagues published this past August in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) regarding "hothouse earth."  The essay, "Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene," is at: http://www.pnas.org/content/115/33/8252