In 1877 William Clifford published an essay titled, The Ethics of Belief." The essay became a seminal work in the field of ethics because Clifford posed a central question in life. Is it wrong to believe something based on insufficient evidence? Is it wrong to oppose or support repeal of the Affordable Care Act absent "patient investigation" or based on "insufficient evidence"? Are those, like the ship owner in Clifford's essay, then responsible for any and all adverse consequences resulting from repeal?